Nitrogen is an essential nutrient to support life, but if poorly managed, can adversely affect the environment, ecosystems and human health. The UN Environment Assembly adopted a resolution to accelerate actions to significantly reduce nitrogen waste from all sources, especially through agricultural practices. Sustainable nitrogen management is key to achieving the SDGs.

Nitrogen and the Environment

Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient to support life, but if poorly managed, can adversely affect the environment, ecosystems and human health. The global challenge of achieving food security with minimal ecosystem degradation and human health impacts hinges on sustainable N management, which goes beyond farm level and requires concerted efforts from a range of stakeholders.

The discovery a century ago of an industrial process that converted nitrogen in the air to ammonia made the manufacture of nitrogen fertilizers possible. This discovery was followed by a spectacular increase in global food production. (UNEP Year Book 2014)

Today nitrogen and other nutrients are used inefficiently in most of the world’s agricultural systems – resulting in enormous and largely unnecessary losses to the environment, with profound impacts ranging from air and water pollution to the undermining of important ecosystems (and the services and livelihoods they support). The employment of nitrogen to boost agriculture production has been proved to be not necessary, as the agricultural yield of countries emitting diverging percentages of nitrogen pollution is not significantly different. Such impacts are often more visible in developed regions than in developing ones. (UNEP Year Book 2014)

Our Nutrient World (Sutton et al. 2013)

The Global Nitrogen Challenge

The UNEP Year Book 2014 emphasized the importance of excess reactive nitrogen in the environment. While few of the solutions identified have been scaled up, nitrogen pollution continues to cause declines in air quality, degradation of terrestrial and aquatic environments, climate change, and ozone depletion. Health, resource management, livelihoods, and economies are all affected by these impacts, hindering progress toward the Sustainable Development Goals.

Severe wildfires increase sediment levels in rivers, alter water temperatures, and affect fish abundance. Post-wildfire erosion introduces nutrients and contaminants into water bodies, affecting aquatic species. The release of nitrogen and phosphorus into water bodies can cause eutrophication and reduce dissolved oxygen levels, posing a risk to aquatic organisms. (Frontiers 2022: Noise, Blazes and Mismatches)

Ammonia, nitrate, nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O) and other forms of Nr pollution cause multiple environmental impacts. These losses may occur directly following fertilizer use, as well as through animal manure, human excreta, and other organic wastes. Even though biological nitrogen fixation loses a smaller fraction of nitrogen to the environment than many fertilizers, both sources contribute to nitrogen pollution. The combustion of fossil fuels and biomass releases NO and NO2. Despite major efforts to reduce NOX emissions from vehicles and energy generation, emissions continue to rise in rapidly developing regions. As a result, humans produce a cocktail of reactive nitrogen that threatens health, climate, and ecosystems. (UNEP Frontiers’ 2018/19 Report)

Different forms of nitrogen in the environment | UNEP Frontiers’ 2018/19 Report, page 53

Nitrogen at the UN Environment Assembly

In this context, at the 5th UN Environment Assembly which concluded on 2 March 2022 in Nairobi, Member States adopted a resolution to accelerate actions to significantly reduce nitrogen waste from all sources, especially through agricultural practices, and saving $100 billion annually.

The United Nations Environment Assembly recognizing the need for coherent action to address the multiple global challenges posed by the natural coupling of carbon and nitrogen cycles, and reaffirming the need for enhanced international cooperation for sustainable nitrogen management. – UNEA5 Resolution

Nitrogen and Agenda 2030

Nitrogen has been vital to the concept of sustainable development and its guiding principles. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) published synthesis statements on nitrogen’s effects on humans and the environment. Recent studies have shown an increase in interest among scientists regarding the global effects of nitrogen on humans and other species. Researchers raised concerns about the dependence of developing countries on nitrogen as well as the lack of knowledge about its impacts and how this leads to social and environmental inequalities.

Despite its relevance to most UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), nitrogen pollution still lacks broad visibility and requires coherent action to address the multiple global challenges and enhance coordinated global governance. Nitrogen plays a central role as:

(1) a key resource to tackle food insecurity and economic development,
(2) a growing socioenvironmental hazard that increases inequalities across species.

By systematically increasing nitrogen compounds, humans are worsening air and water quality, contributing to climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion, and thereby endangering health, biodiversity, and livelihoods. While nitrogen compounds are vital building blocks of life, they are also necessary to produce food and bio-energy. As a result, policy fragmentation can be reduced and solutions to the many problems we know can be accelerated. Sustainable nitrogen management is key to achieving the SDGs.

Nutrient losses from agriculture can be reduced by up to 50% at local, national and global scales by 2030 without compromising food security, using existing farm-level practices and technologies as well as through landscape management. – Science Brief for Target 7 of the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework

The UN Biodiversity Conference COP15 examines ways to stop biodiversity loss. Ecosystem services such as pollination and flood prevention are inextricably linked to human well-being, while nitrogen and carbon cycles are impossible without diverse organisms at every stage. Furthermore, nitrogen is also intertwined with Water-Food-Energy-Ecosystems Nexus, as much nitrogen waste from atmospheric deposition and farm inputs finds its way into watercourses, which affects the quality of water, ecology, and coastal fisheries. In each issue, nitrogen has lacked the gravitas needed to catalyze change.

Integrated Sustainable Nitrogen Management

Integrated sustainable nitrogen management offers the opportunity to link the multiple benefits of better nitrogen use from environmental, economic and health perspectives, helping to avoid policy trade-offs while maximizing synergies. By demonstrating the multiple benefits of taking action on nitrogen, a much stronger mobilization for change is expected, catalysing progress towards many of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.

In 2020, the Guidance document on integrated sustainable nitrogen management was adopted by the Executive Body for the Geneva Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. The purpose of the document is to mobilize Parties’ efforts to control pollution from agricultural sources in the context of the wider nitrogen cycle in an integrated manner harvesting multiple cobenefits of improved nitrogen management. The document is in particular aimed to support the implementation of the Convention’s Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone.

Integrated sustainable nitrogen management offers the opportunity to link the multiple benefits of better nitrogen (N) use from environmental, economic and health perspectives, helping to avoid policy trade-offs while maximizing synergies.
By demonstrating the multiple benefits of taking action on nitrogen, a much stronger mobilization for change is expected, catalysing progress towards many of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.

Ten Key Points of Nitrogen Cycling

The description of sustainable nitrogen management is underpinned by ten key points of nitrogen cycling. The fundamental reflections of biogeochemistry must be recognized if human management of the nitrogen cycle is to move from a system emphasizing new production of N compounds and wasteful losses to a more circular system, which maximizes the recovery and reuse of available N resources.

This section describes the key points of N cycling in the biosphere that underpin the N cycle in relation to agricultural practice. These key points provide the starting point from which to consider the principles of sustainable nitrogen management. “Principles” are understood here as “fundamental truths” and/or “wellestablished scientific and practical knowledge” that should be familiar to all practitioners, N managers and policymakers. The key points of nitrogen cycling also represent informing principles:

Ten key points of nitrogen cycling | UNECE Guidance document on integrated sustainable nitrogen management, page 14

These key points underpin the principles of integrated sustainable nitrogen management. Humans introduce huge amounts of additional reactive nitrogen into the nitrogen cycle, meaning that the system is now out of balance.

Principles of Integrated Sustainable Nitrogen Management

The Guidance document on integrated sustainable nitrogen management focuses on the agricultural sector, including both cropping and livestock systems. While humans have implicitly engaged in managing nitrogen over many millennia, this has not always been sustainable or integrated. Twenty-four principles of integrated sustainable nitrogen management are identified below:

Management Tools

The toolbox for developing integrated approaches to N management contains both tools that are uniformly applicable and more specific tools, suitable for just one dimension of integration. Important common tools are:

(a) Systems analysis, used especially by the science-policy-practice interface;

(b) Nitrogen input-output budgeting tools to integrate N sources and N species for well-defined areas at various scales (from farms to continents) and that are easy for farmers and policymakers to understand (as well as being compatible with data privacy regulations);

(c) Integrated assessment modelling and cost-benefit analyses. The “DriverPressure-State-Impact-Response” (DPSIR) framework can be used as a starting point for analysing cause-effect relationships conceptually and cost-benefit analysis (CBA) goes a step further by expressing costs and benefits of policy measures in monetary terms;

(d) Food-chain assessment and management relates to the planning and management of activities and information between actors in the whole food production–consumption chain, including suppliers, processors, retail, waste-recycling companies and
citizens;

(e) Stakeholder dialogue and communication are essential for exchanging views of actors on N management issues, which can help make the concepts transparent and facilitate adoption of targets and the implementation of measures in practice;

(f) Abatement/mitigation measures, including best management practices, which have been shown to reduce emissions and impacts, as described in chapters IV-VI of the present document.

Source-to-sea Management

Climate regulation, storm protection, food security, nutrient cycling are all provided by the marine environment. From tourism to fisheries, these services support millions of livelihoods. Over 60% of the world’s total gross national product comes from areas within 100 kilometers of the coastline. Human activities and marine pollution continue to cause advanced degradation of oceans, despite their enormous ecological and economic importance. Overall, the impacts from overfishing, coastal hypoxia and eutrophication, invasive aquatic species, coastal habitat loss and ocean acidification cost the global economy at least US$350 billion to US$940 billion every year.

The source-to-sea approach aims at bridging existing gaps by connecting the ecosystems’ management and tackling maritime pollution at the source, upstream. Managing land, freshwater, coastal and marine resources holistically – from source to sea – is critical to protect our oceans, and manage our freshwater as well as land resources sustainably.

The Global Workshop on Source-to-sea Management was organized in December 2022 in Geneva, under the auspices of the Water Convention serviced by UNECE, under the leadership of Estonia and Slovenia, in cooperation with UN Environment Mediterranean Action Plan (UNEP MAP), the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (IOC-UNESCO), Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI), Action Platform for Source-to-Sea Management (S2S Platform), Global Water Partnership (GWP), Global Environment Facility (GEF) and its International Waters Learning Exchange and Resource Network (GEF IW:Learn).

Atlas of global assessments and scenario forecasting on nutrient cycling and environmental impacts, December 2018.

Predicted changes in per-area nutrient fluxes by large river basin and nutrient form globally between years 2000 and 2050. Note especially large anticipated changes in DIN and DIP loading in South Asia and parts of Central and South America. There are substantial differences in the relative contributions of various nutrient sources and human drivers causing the scenario trends between developing countries and industrialized countries. Global NEWS scenarios for 2030 and 2050 indicate that substantial changes in coastal nutrient loading may occur due to changing nutrient management in agriculture.

Global Initiatives and Efforts to Address Nitrogen Pollution

UN System Common Approach to Transitioning Towards a Pollution-free Planet:

At its fourth session in March 2019, the United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA 4) adopted the global Implementation Plan “Towards a Pollution-Free Planet”. The plan reflects UNEA resolution 3/8, which ‘encourages Governments to pursue synergies and co-benefits between national clean air policies and policies in key areas such as transport, including vehicle emissions and fuel standards, urbanization, climate change, energy access and agriculture, and to take advantage of the synergistic effects of efficient nitrogen management on reducing air, marine and water pollution’. Delivering an Implementation Plan that tackles the root causes of pollution requires a UN system-wide, coordinated approach. Among the many UN agencies that are working to contribute to the UN System Common Approach on Pollution, the UN Environment Management Group (EMG) established at its 27th meeting in October 2021, a Consultative Process to provide a framework for collective action in support of the Implementation Plan “Towards a Pollution-Free Planet”.  

The UNEA-5 Nitrogen Resolution

The UNEA-5 nitrogen resolution represents a turning point for member states, UNEP, and the scientific community. In addition to countries with too much and too little nitrogen, intensive and agroecological farming may benefit from halving global nitrogen waste since reduced waste enables available nitrogen resources to be used more efficiently.

Establishing the International Nitrogen Management System

The International Nitrogen Management System was launched in 2016 and is led by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology on behalf of the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) in partnership with the International Nitrogen Initiative. It has been established as a science-led process for policy support across the nitrogen cycle. This project illustrates how sustainable management of the global nitrogen cycle benefits nature and society. Ultimately, global nitrogen governance must move beyond fragmentation of the past. Therefore, coordinated action on nitrogen benefits the environment, health, and economy.

UN Resolutions and Collaborations for Sustainable Nitrogen Management

A partnership between INMS and the South Asian Cooperative Environment Programme (SACEP) was formed in 2017 to draft the first UN Resolution on Sustainable Nitrogen Management, adopted by the Fourth UN Environment Assembly in March 2019 (UNEP/EA.4/Res.14). Furthermore, the UNEA5 Resolution on Sustainable Nitrogen Management was developed with support from the GEF/UNEP project « Towards an International Nitrogen Management System ».

UN Global Campaign on Sustainable Nitrogen Management

When the UN Global Campaign on Sustainable Nitrogen Management was launched in October 2019, it accelerated this process. In addition to endorsing the UNEP Road Map for Sustainable Nitrogen Management, the Colombo Declaration agreed to halve nitrogen waste by 2030 through National Nitrogen Action Plans. Now that it has become more widely embraced, the new global goal is assuming a life of its own. In May 2020, the European Commission added a goal to its Farm to Fork and Biodiversity Strategies to « reduce nutrient pollution by 50% by 2030 ». Additionally, the CBD considered adopting a similar target (CBD/WG2020/2/3).

UN Food Systems Summit 2021

Through the transformation of the agri-food systems, the 2021 United Nations Food Systems Summit offered an opportunity to address nitrogen challenges. The purpose of the event was to raise awareness about nitrogen challenges and potential technical solutions in agri-food systems. Different stakeholders were able to contribute to achieving sustainable nitrogen management by learning about the multiple roles of nitrogen in agri-food systems.

The Role of Geneva

Organizations are listed in alphabetical order.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Geneva Liaison Office

​Nitrogen has been vital to the concept of sustainable development and its guiding principles. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) published synthesis statements on nitrogen’s effects on humans and the environment, including nitrogen and protein content measurement and nitrogen to protein conversion factors for dairy and soy protein-based foods: a systematic review and modelling analysis. FAO also provides up to-date statistics on nitrogen fertilizer use and nutrient budget and supports the implementation of the International Code of Conduct for the Sustainable Use and Management of Fertilizers. In July 2019, FAO and WHO convened meeting of JEMNU in Geneva.

International Labour Organization (ILO)

The International Labour Organization (ILO) is devoted to promoting social justice and internationally recognized human and labour rights, including workers’ safety and health. To this purpose, ILO raises awareness and promotes solutions to nitrogen-related occupational exposures, which can occur in the manufacturing of civil explosives, rocket fuels, and military ordnance. Fumes of nitrogen oxides are generated in fires in the low-temperature aging of nitrate-containing materials, such as fertilizers (ammonium nitrate) and aged ammunition (ILO, 2022). The ILO has adopted more than 40 standards specifically dealing with occupational safety and health, as well as over 40 Codes of Practice. Nearly half of ILO instruments deal directly or indirectly with occupational safety and health issues. 

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

In collaboration with the OECD, the IPCC has published several papers on nitrogen. The 2019 Refinement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories was adopted and accepted during the 49th Session of the IPCC in May 2019. It was prepared by the Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (TFI) in accordance with the decision taken at the 44th Session of IPCC in Bangkok, Thailand, in October 2016.

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)

The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) is the leading UN entity on human rights and represents the world’s commitment to the promotion and protection of the full range of human rights and freedoms set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The environmental dimension of human rights has been increasingly recognized in the past years, especially with the recognition of the right to a safe, clean, healthy, and sustainable environment by the General Assembly. As nitrogen poses threats to the enjoyment of such rights, the mandates of the Special Rapporteurs on human rights and the environment, on toxics and human rights advocate for better solutions to these issues, through reports on the right to a non-toxic environment. For instance, in its Statement at the conclusion of the country visit to Slovenia SP on human rights and the environment David R. Boyd, discussed the importance of diminishing nitrogen dioxide levels as a form of air pollution. 

Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM)

SAICM is a catalyst, connecting sectors and stakeholders, towards the goal of a chemical-safe, clean and healthy future, and will take great strides by all stakeholders to commit and stay engaged in order to accelerate progress. SAICM will continue to support closing the gap in chemicals management between developed and developing countries, as well as participate in international events that bring together experts in agriculture, soil, and industry to discuss reactive nitrogen compounds.

UNECE Convention on Access to Information (Aarhus Convention)

The UNECE Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters, and its Protocol on PRTRs empower people with the rights to access information, participate in decision-making in environmental matters and to seek justice.

The powerful twin protections provided for the environment and human rights can help address many global challenges: climate change, biodiversity loss, air and water pollution, poverty eradication and security. As a result, governments can engage the public effectively in implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (UNECE/CLRTAP)

The Geneva Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution establishes a system allowing governments to work together with the aim of protecting health and the environment from air pollution that is liable to affect several countries. The convention was signed in 1979 in Geneva within the framework of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and entered into force in 1983.

The Convention has substantially contributed to the development of international environmental law and has created the essential framework for controlling and reducing the damage to human health and the environment caused by transboundary air pollution.

Key steps include action of the Nitrogen Working Group to establish the Interconvention Nitrogen Coordination Mechanism (INCOM), adoption by several governments of the Colombo Declaration, as well as publication of international Guidance on Integrated Sustainable Nitrogen Management coordinated under the auspices of the Geneva Air Convention. Together with other regional developments, these provided the opportunity for UNEA-5 to make further progress on addressing the nitrogen challenge.

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE)

According to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), agriculture is the largest contributor to ammonia pollution in the world, and also emits other nitrogen compounds. This affects soil quality and thus the very capacity of the soil to sustain plant and animal productivity. Trade in agricultural products has also increased the amount of pollution emitted by the intensification process in producer countries in recent decades.

UNECE’s quality standards guarantee consumers in rural and urban areas a constant supply of food that is safe, healthy, and nutritious. Trade and accessibility of good quality food are prerequisites to sustaining a growing population and coping with environmental and climate challenges.

The International Cooperative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops assesses the impacts of air pollutants, particularly ground-level ozone, on crops. In addition, the International Cooperative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of the Effects of Air Pollution on Rivers and Lakes assesses the degree and geographical extent of acidification of surface waters, which might end up in the oceans and affect habitat for fish. In addition, the Task Force on Reactive Nitrogen develops technical and scientific information and encourages coordination of air pollution policies on nitrogen in the context of the nitrogen cycle. The International Cooperative Programme on Modelling and Mapping of Critical Levels and Loads and Air Pollution Effects, Risks and Trends monitors nitrogen depositions from atmosphere into European ecosystem.

The Geneva Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) especially considers impacts of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ammonia (NH3) emissions in the context of the wider nitrogen cycle, and the South Asia Cooperative Environment Programme (SACEP) promotes regional co-operation on nitrogen and sustainable development.

United Nations Environment Management Group (EMG) 

The United Nations Environment Management Group (EMG), pursuing UNEA4 global Implementation Plan “Towards a Pollution-Free Planet”, (UNEP/EA.4/Res.21), established in 2021 a Consultative Process. Through the establishment of the Consultative Process towards a pollution-free planet, EMG aims to provide an enabling environment for UN bodies, including MEAs, to coordinate policies and action. Sustainable nitrogen management requires such an approach for its cross-cutting nature and coordination of the various actors, MEAs and bodies working on the different angles of the issue. To this end, in April 2023 EMG, together with FAO and UNEP, organized a nexus dialogue on Sustainable Nitrogen Management The dialogue offered an outlook on nitrogen and its linkages with food systems and the triple planetary crisis and deepened an understanding among EMG members on how to build a system-wide approach to sustainable nitrogen management, bringing different perspectives and strengths of UN entities and looking at synergies and policy coherence. 

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

UNEP has raised awareness on sustainable nitrogen management through a series on emerging issues relevant to the environment, assessment reports and through the Global Partnership on Nutrients Management (GPNM). In response to the Resolutions on Sustainable Nitrogen Management  adopted at UNEA4 and UNEA5, UNEP established a Working Group on Nitrogen.  As a result, the international community has been taking major steps forward, especially as catalysed by the UNEP GEF project ‘Towards the International Nitrogen Management System’ (INMS).

UNEP Chemicals and Health Branch

UN Environment’s work on chemicals and waste is led by the Chemicals and Health Branch, which is based in Geneva. The work of UNEP Chemicals and Health Branch has generated a wealth of information, data and knowledge related to chemicals and wastes. To assist countries and stakeholders with meeting various environmental targets and objectives of Multilateral Environmental Agreements, activities were conducted with digital tools developed and data generated:

  • to monitor globally the presence of POPs and mercury in humans and in the environment;
  • to develop national inventories of POPs and mercury;
  • to strengthen knowledge sharing and usage for informed decision-making on environmentally sound management on chemicals and waste; and
  • to promote an integrated approach to address pollution and waste towards achieving the sustainable development goals.

UNEP Global Resource Information Database (GRID-Geneva)

The Global Resource Information Database – Geneva (GRID-Geneva), is a partnership between the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) and the University of Geneva (UniGe).

UNEP/GRID has published research assessing selected environmental footprints for Europe based on the concept of planetary boundaries. It explores various approaches for allocating global limits to the European level. Europe currently exceeds its safe operating space for nitrogen cycle. This underlines, amongst others, the importance of sustainable nutrition patterns.

Water Convention

The Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes (Water Convention) is a unique international legal instrument and intergovernmental platform which aims to ensure the sustainable use of transboundary water resources by facilitating cooperation. Initially negotiated as a regional instrument, it has been opened up for accession to all UN Member States in 2016.

In December 2022, the seventh meeting of the Task Force on Water-Food-Energy-Ecosystems Nexus aims to discuss, plan and provide guidance to the implementation of the activities on water food energy ecosystems nexus, as well as on water allocation, under the programme of work for 2022-2024 of the Water Convention. The UNECE Water Convention is therefore relevant for addressing nitrogen issues.

World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)

The agriculture and food sectors impact several sustainability boundaries, including nitrogen and phosphorous flows, biodiversity loss, water consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. Methane and nitrous oxide (from reactive nitrogen emissions) contribute significantly to greenhouse gas emissions.

To help meet this challenge, the Protein Working Group of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) Food and Nature Program will work together with other leading global businesses.

WBCSD brings together companies from the food and agriculture sector to help meet the nutritional needs of a growing global population and stay within planetary boundaries. Its Food & Nature Program develops and disseminates solutions for healthy people and a healthy planet, including Nutrition & Health, Livelihoods & Human Rights, Biodiversity & Ecosystems, Climate Resilience & Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in a dialogue between business and civil society across agriculture and food. In order to ensure sustainable development of rural communities, agricultural production systems must become more resource efficient, support biodiversity, and reduce negative health outcomes.

World Economic Forum (WEF)

In low and middle-income countries, nitrogen dioxide levels were about 1.5 times higher than in high-income countries. At COP26, the World Economic Forum and Clean Air Fund launched the Alliance for Clean Air, the first global private sector initiative to combat air pollution.

Alliance for Clean Air is a business-led group dedicated to measuring and reducing value chain air pollution, investing in innovation, and working with policymakers and peers to make tackling air pollution a social, economic, and climate benefit. In partnership with Accenture and the Clean Air Fund, a new business action toolkit is available for companies interested in learning more about tackling air pollution as part of their climate strategies.

World Health Organization (WHO)

The World Health Organization (WHO) published synthesis statements on nitrogen’s effects on humans and the environment, including the estimation of the population’s outdoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide and ozone and the resulting impacts in Europe and related to Nitrite in Drinking-water in collaboration with the European Centre for Environment and Health (ECEH) with contributions from the Norwegian Meteorological Institute.

World Trade Organization (WTO) 

The World Trade Organization (WTO) as the global trade regulating and monitoring entity, observes the trade of nitrogen under the fertilizers lens through its Trade Monitoring exercise. In a recent document developed in collaboration with FAO, WTO stressed the importance of transparency and communication of trade measures to ‘foster transparency and predictability of trade in agricultural inputs and food’. 

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