Last updated: 31 Jan 2024

The 2023 UN Climate Change Conference – UNFCCC COP28 – took place in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, from 30 November to 13 December 2023. This page provides updates on the 2023 UN Climate Change Conference and the involvement of International Geneva.

UN Climate Change Conference (COP28)

The 2023 UN Climate Change Conference (COP28) took place in Dubai, United Arab Emirates from 30 November to 13 December 2023 under the Presidency of the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

COP28 was the moment when the world took stock of its progress on the Paris Agreement.

As agreed in the Paris Agreement, countries and stakeholders undergo the global stocktake progress to track their collective advancement towards meeting the goals of the Paris Climate Change Agreement. The GST takes place every five years, with the first-ever stocktake scheduled to conclude at COP28. This helps in aligning efforts on climate action, including measures that need to be put in place to bridge the gaps in progress. According to the Synthesis report by the co-facilitators on the technical dialogue of the first global stocktake, launched in September 2023, the world is not on track to meet the long-term goals set out in the Paris Agreement for limiting global temperature rise, calling for a commitment to decisive action.

The Bonn Climate Change Conference held from 5 to 15 June 2023, made progress on issues of critical importance, including the global stocktake, climate finance, loss and damage, and adaptation, helping lay the groundwork for the political decisions required at COP28. →  Find out more in the Draft conclusions proposed by the Chair (FCCC/SBI/2023/L.10), the UN Climate Change Press Release, and the ENB Summary

Relevant Outcomes and Highlights

  • Parties adopted a decision on the first Global Stocktake under the Paris Agreement.
  • Parties agreed on the operationalization of the loss and damage fund on the first day of the conference. Commitments to the fund currently amount to more than USD 700 million to date. Parties also agreed that the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction and the UN Office for Project Services will host the secretariat of the Santiago Network for Loss and Damage.
  • Parties agreed on targets for the Global Goal on Adaptation (GGA) and its framework. The GGA framework reflects a global consensus on adaptation targets and the need for finance, technology and capacity-building support to achieve them.
  • Important, although still insufficient, financial pledges have been made to the Green Climate Fund (GCF) – USD 12.8 billion from 31 countries -; the Least Developed Countries Fund and Special Climate Change Fund – USD 174 million – and the Adaptation Fund- USD 188 million.
  • On 11 December 2023, parties adopted a decision (FCCC/CP/2023/L.4) accepting Azerbaijan’s offer to host COP29 from Monday, 11 November, to Friday, 22 November 2024, and Brazil’s offer to host COP 30 from Monday, 10 November, to Friday, 21 November 2025.
  • The High-Level Champions, under the Marrakech Partnership for Global Climate Action, launched an implementation roadmap of 2030 Climate Solutionsa set of solutions on effective measures that need to be scaled up and replicated to halve global emissions, address adaptation gaps and increase resilience by 2030.
  • Standard-setting bodies, international organizations, steel producers, and industry associations developed and endorsed the Steel Standards Principles, recognizing that the iron and steel sector accounts for approximately 8% of annual global greenhouse gas emissions and that these emissions will need to be reduced by at least 90% for the sector to play a credible role in achieving climate targets.
  • Nature, Land Use and Ocean Day saw leaders endorse commitments and pledges to drive climate action and continue to build momentum to protect and restore nature.
  • Leading public finance institutions committed to delivering net-zero economies by 2050 by supporting the decarbonization of trade and facilitating joint action from public and private finance joining the UN-led net-zero finance alliance, the Net-Zero Export Credit Agencies Alliance (NZECA).Various works to anchor climate action to just transition were advanced through the launch of the COP28 Gender-Responsive Just Transitions & Climate Action Partnership.
  • The Governments of France and Morocco, together with UNEP launched the Buildings Breakthrough. It will see countries joining forces to accelerate the transformation of the sector – which accounts for 21 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions.
  • The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations launched a Global Roadmap on Achieving SDG2 without breaching the 1.5C threshold.
  • The Freshwater Challenge – launched at the UN Water Conference in March 2023 – is one of the official water outcomes of COP28 as 37 countries joined the effort to restore degraded rivers, lakes and wetlands and to protect vital freshwater ecosystems.
  • The Coral Reef Breakthrough was launched to secure the future of at least 125,000 km2 of shallow-water tropical coral reefs. The breakthrough was developed in collaboration with the UN Climate Change High-level Champions (HLCC), the International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI), and the Global Fund for Coral Reefs (GFCR) with support from the Government of Sweden and the Principality of Monaco.
  • France, alongside Canada, the European Commission, Indonesia, Malaysia, Senegal, UK and US launched the Coal Transition Accelerator initiative.

COP28 non-negotiated declarations, pledges, and charters.

  1. Coalition for High Ambition Multilevel Partnerships (CHAMP) for Climate Action, signed by 71 parties.
  2. UAE Leaders’ Declaration on a Global Climate Finance Framework, signed by 13 parties.
  3. COP28 UAE Declaration on Climate and Health, signed by 143 parties
  4. COP28 Declaration on Climate, Relief, Recovery and Peace, 90 signatories.
  5. Global Renewables and Energy Efficiency Pledge, 123 signatories
  6. COP28 UAE Declaration on Sustainable Agriculture, Resilient Food Systems, and Climate Action, signed by 158 parties
  7. COP28 Gender-Responsive Just Transitions and Climate Action Partnership, signed by 78 parties.
  8. Global Cooling Pledge for COP28, signed by 61 parties.
  9. COP28 Declaration of Intent (hydrogen), signed by 37 parties.

COP28 Thematic Program

COP28’s two-week program highlighted the sectors and topics raised by stakeholders during consultations, including the themes that need to be part of the COP agenda each year, and new issues like health, trade and relief, recovery, and peace. The program unfolded around four cross-cutting themes.

  1. Technology and Innovation
  2. Inclusion
  3. Frontline Communities
  4. Finance

Summaries of each thematic days can be found on the COP28 Host Official Website.

Geneva’s Engagement at COP28

Climate change is deeply linked to biodiversity loss, human rights, economic prosperity, trade, health, and many other issues at the heart of multilateral processes in Geneva. These multilateral processes can be used to foster international cooperation on climate change. Below is a list of Geneva-based organizations and their engagement at COP28.

Basel, Rotterdam and Stockholm Conventions

The Secretariat of the BRS Conventions will actively engage at COP 28 to bring attention to the linkages between chemicals, wastes and climate change and potentials for integrated actions.

Center for International Environmental Law (CIEL)

CIEL experts will be closely following the negotiations and in particular the intersection between human rights and climate change, the role of the fossil fuels industry, false climate solutions, climate accountability, and the right to a clean, healthy, and sustainable environment.

Conscious Planet - Save Soil

Save Soil pavilion in the Blue Zone will host daily talks and panel discussions to discuss healthy soil as a solution to climate change. These aim to change the narrative from ‘agricultural soils are victims of climate change’ to ‘healthy agricultural soils are a significant solution to climate change’.

Environment Management Group (EMG)

At COP28, the Environment Management Group High-level Dialogue will take place under the aim of strengthening UN system climate action in support of Parties to UNFCCC

Food and Agriculture Organization

Co-hosting the Food and Agriculture Pavilion for the second consecutive year, FAO is at COP28 advocating for global action on climate, agriculture and food security and will be leading events and supporting member countries with technical advice both within and outside the climate negotiations.

Global Alliance of Human Rights Institutions

GANHRI is committed to supporting NHRI work on climate change and has recently gained observer status at the international climate negotiations. In the course of COP28, GANHRI will host a  symposium of NHRIs on human rights and climate change.

Global Cities Hub Geneva

The first Local Climate Action Summit takes place at the COP28 on 1-2 December 2023 in Dubai and can be followed online.

Green Growth Knowledge Platform

GGKP will support various events related to its workstreams.

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC)

At COP28, IFRC calls for increasing the urgency and action on the climate crisis

International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)

IISD Earth Negotiations Bulletin will cover the negotiations with daily highlights.

International Labour Organization

ILO initiatives at COP28 will include the Just Transition Pavilion, High-level dialogue on delivering a gender-responsive just transition for all; ILO-IsDB Youth Green Skills Accelerator Challenge Call;and the launch of ILO-IsDB report on Green Jobs in the MENA region.

International Organization of Employers

IOE will be hosting the first Employers & Green Skills Pavilion in the Blue Zone and will be representing employers in various discussions, high-level events and at the ILO Just Transition Pavilion.

International Organization for Migration

IOM will raise attention on climate migration and host various sessions on migration, environment, climate change and disaster risk reduction at COP28


The IPCC will display a rich scientific program of its own events at the “Science for Climate Action” pavilion. IPCC lead scientists and authors will also have an active part in several mandated official events.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

ISO will host a pavilion that will encourage international and national decision-makers to engage further on collaborationmitigationadaptation, and sustainable finance.

International Trade Center (ITC)

At COP28, ITC will place a spotlight on the role of trade and small businesses in supporting the achievement of the Paris Agreement.

International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

ITU, together with partners spanning the UN, governments, business, and civil society, will convene the Green Digital Action track at COP28 to step up digital-technology-driven climate action.

International Union for Conservation of Nature

IUCN will also host the ‘Unite for Nature’ pavilion in the COP28 blue zone, which will provide a concrete platform to showcase the collective work of the Union.

Ramsar Convention on Wetlands

The Secretariat of the Convention on Wetlands is co-organizing or contributing to several events during COP28 and prepared a range of  publications on wetlands and climate change ahead the meeting.

TESS Forum

TESS is committed to supporting analysis, reflection, and action on where and how trade and trade policies can help avoid a climate catastrophe and foster climate-resilient development and just transitions.

UN CC:Learn

At COP28, UN CC:Learn organizes and supports the Climate Classroom; COP28 Library of UN Ressources; and various events

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

UNCTAD is partnering with the UAE, the World Trade Organization, the World Economic Forum and the International Chamber of Commerce to shape the day’s discussions.

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE)

UNECE will be fully engaged at COP28 to support urgently-needed climate action. It will organize various side events.

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

UNEP will host its first-ever Pavilion at COP28. UNEP will be highlighting scalable solutions under six key sectors to reduce emissions: Energy, Industry, Agriculture and Food, Forests and Land Use, Transport, Buildings and Cities.

UNEP Finance Intiative (UNEP FI)

The Sustainable Finance Forum will be held on 6 December in Dubai, UAE. Hosted by Climate Action, the PRI and UNEP FI, this event will be one of the biggest platforms for open dialogue with the finance sector held alongside COP28.

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

UNHCR is providing protection and assistance to many refugees and internally displaced people impacted by the climate emergency as well as helping them increase their resilience in a changing climate.

Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights

The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) and the Human Rights Council (HRC) work to highlight the links between climate change and human rights and call for a rights-based approach to guide global climate change policies and action

World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)

WBCSD events will bring the leading voice of business to the forefront of the COP28 agenda through four main tracks for bold action: corporate carbon performance and accountability, energy and industrial sectors transition, food and agriculture transformation and nature positive for climate action.

We Mean Business Coalition

We Mean Business Coalition is hosting the Business Pavilion for Climate Leadership in the Blue Zone to bring an ambitious and coordinated business voice to COP28 to launch the message ‘Incremental change is not enough. We need to go all in at scale. Don’t wait for too late. ‘

World Economic Forum

WEG will advance multistakeholder initiatives for enhanced climate solutions.  It will focus on key priority action areas including industry decarbonization and net zero, energy transition, food, nature and innovative finance.

World Health Organization (WHO)

COP28 in collaboration with WHO and other main partners will organise the first ever Health day and climate-health ministerial. WHO and Wellcome Trust will host COP28 Health Pavilion.

World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

WMO supports the United Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) process and  participates COPs by providing the latest scientific advice and information to governments, including on the state of the climate and greenhouse gas concentrations.

World Trade Organization

WTO Secretariat  will co-lead “Trade Day” discussions on 4 December together with  UNCTAD, International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), the World Economic Forum (WEF) and the Abu Dhabi Department of Economic Development.

World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF)

WWF expressed its expectations and wishes for COP28 and overall climate action in its recent manifesto Climate action right now: Everyone, everywhere, all at once.

Zoï Environment Network

Zoï  & Partners will host an event at the Cryosphere Pavilion, Blue Zone & Online titled ‘Mountains of opportunity: how to leverage funding for climate adaptation’ on10 December, 10:00-11:00 Dubai Time

Geneva Environment Network Briefing on COP28

The Permanent Mission to the United Arab Emirates to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva and the Geneva Environment Network hosted a briefing on the challenges of and opportunities in addressing climate change, and the contributions of international Geneva to the global climate change agenda. → Rewatch the session and access resources


Events taking place in Geneva in preparation for and after COP28 are listed below.

Key Resources

Who to Follow on Twitter


Want to dive into COP28 negotiations?  Follow UNEP’s Spotlight on Climate Action, the Earth Negotiations Bulletin, watch the public webcast, or read the Climate Action Network International (CAN) ECO daily newsletter.